Definition of Narrative Text
Teks naratif adalah suatu bentuk teks yang lisan atau tertulis yang menceritakan sebuah cerita dari satu karakter atau lebih yang mengahadapi situasi tertentu yang dibuat dengan tujuan untuk menghibur para pembaca.
Jenis teks naratif seperti, legend, fable, fairy tale, folktale, short story, real-life drama, classic, fantasy, adventure, science, fiction, myth dan mistery.
Purpose of Narrative Text
Seperti yang sudah disebutkan diatas bahwa tujuan utama dari teks naratif adalah untuk menghibur pembaca or entertain the readers. Bagi sebagian kalangan, terutama peserta didik teks naratif dapat berfungsi untuk menghibur dan sekaligus menumbuhkan penghargaan terhadap nilai-nilai luhur yang dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat di lingkungannya, seperti kepahlawanan, kesetiaan, kepatuhan dan hormat kepada orangtua, keterbukaan, kebenaran dan sebagainya.
Struktur teks naratif umumnya sebagai berikut:
- Orientation, memperkenalkan tokoh, tempat, waktu terjadinya cerita.
- Complication, memaparkan krisis yang terjadi terhadap tokoh utama.
- Resolution, krisis berakhir dengan baik atau dengan tidak baik bagi tokoh yang juga merupakan akhir cerita.
- Reorientation, memberikan alasan atau komentar umum, opsional.
Unsur kebahasaan yang terdapat dalam teks naratif,
- Tata bahasa: simple past dan past continuous tense.
- Kalimat langsung dan tidak langsung.
- Kosakata: benda atau tindakan yang terkait dengan kehidupan tokoh cerita.
- Adverbia penghubung waktu: first, then, after, that, before, at last, finally dan sebagainya.
- Adverbia dan frase preposisional penunjuk waktu: a long time ago, one day, in the morning, the next day, immediately dan sebagainya.
- Penggunaan nominal singular dan plural secara tepat, dengan atau tanpa a, the, this, those, my their dan sebagainya.
- Ucapan, tekanan kata, intonasi.
- Ejaan dan tanda baca
Types of Narrative Text
Jenis-jenis Narrative text dapat berupa legend (legenda), folktale, myth, fable, fairy tale, dan lain-lain. Kebanyakan film-film non fiksi yang menghiasi layar kaca maupun televisi kita, awalnya berasal dari kisah-kisah teks narasi yang diangkat kedalam film layar lebar. Misalnya Cinderella, Twilight, Misteri Gunung merapi, Wiro Sableng dan banyak film terkenal lainnya.
Example of Narrative Text
Once upon a time in West Java, Indonesia, lived a princess named Dayang Sumbi. She was beautiful and kind-hearted. Her hobby was weaving cloth. But sometimes she could be very lazy. One day her weaving tool fell but she was too lazy to get it herself. She shouted out, “Can anybody help me get my tool? If you are a female, I will take you as my sister. If you are a male, I will marry you!”
A male creature came, but it was a dog. His name was Tumang. He happily brought her the tool. Dayang Sumbi was very surprised but she had to keep her promise. She married the dog. Tumang was actually a man who had been cursed by a witch to become a dog. But at certain times Tumang could turn back to be a normal man. Their only son, Sangkuriang, was soon born, and he grew up to be a handsome and healthy boy. He always played with his very loyal dog, Tumang. He did not know that he was actually his father, because Dayang Sumbi hid the secret from him. Sangkuriang liked to hunt in the woods, of course with Tumang.
One day Dayang Sumbi asked him to bring home a deer’s heart. But, after hunting for several days, he could not find any deer in the woods. He didn’t want to disappoint his mother and was thinking hard about how to bring home a deer’s heart. Suddenly he had a very bad idea. He killed Tumang. Then he brought his heart home and gave it to Dayang Sumbi.
Sangkuriang could not cheat her. She knew it was Tumang’s heart. So, she got very angry and hit Sangkuriang’s forehead with a piece of wood and told him to leave. With a bad wound on his forehead, Sangkuriang left the village.
Many years later, Sangkuriang grew up to be a powerful handsome man. One day, he went back to his village. He met a beautiful young woman there, and he fell in love with her at first sight. It was Dayang Sumbi. She never got older because she had been granted eternal youth by the gods.
Sangkuring did not know that she was his mother, so she came to her and proposed to marry her. When he walked closer to her, Dayang Sumbi got very surprised. She saw the scar on Sangkuriang’s forehead, and soon she knew that he was her son, who left her a long time ago. She told him the truth and tried hard to explain it to him, but he did not believe in her. She did not want to break his heart, so she accepted his proposal but gave him an impossible thing to do. She wanted him to build a lake and a boat in just one night!
Sangkuriang agreed, because he knew that he could make it with the help of his genies. By midnight, he finished the lake and then started making the boat. Dayang Sumbi was thinking hard to find a way to fail him.
Before dawn, she asked the people in the village to burn the woods in the East, and the light made all the cocks crow. Thinking that the night would be over soon, the genies ran fast and left Sangkuriang before the boat was finished. Sangkuriang realized that Dayang Sumbi had cheated him. He got very angry and he kicked the boat upside down. It gradually became a mountain and it is now known as Mt. Tangkuban Perahu.